Year 2019, Volume 6 , Issue 3, Pages 223 - 232 2019-10-15

Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey

Nazan Çömlekcioğlu [1] , Yusuf Ziya Kocabaş [2] , Ashabil Aygan [3]


Species belonging to genus Ajuga (Lamiaceae) have been used to treat many diseases in traditional medicine. The plants of the genus Ajuga have been reported to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antihypertensive, antiplasmodial, hypoglycaemic, and larvae and insect activity. Ajuga relicta is a relict endemic plant which grows only in Kahramanmaras. The total phenolic contents of the extracts have been quantified with Folin Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant activities of the extracts have been tested with DPPH, and FRAP. Antimicrobial activities of plant extracts were determined by the well-diffusion method against seven bacteria and four yeasts. Besides, the fatty acid composition was determined in GC-MS. As a result of GC-MS analysis of the oil obtained from the A. relicta extracts, 21 different fatty acids were identified. The highest contents of these fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.50%), oleic acid (23.51%), stearic acid (9.13%) and linoleic acid (7.18%). Total phenolic value of plant extract was 11.94 mg/g, total flavonoid amount 2.28 mg/g, FRAP value 43.53 μg/g and DPPH value 1.63 mg/g. Antimicrobial activity experiment on a total of 11 microorganisms (seven bacteria and four yeast) showed that Ajuga extracts inhibited the growth of tested microorganisms except Enterobacter cloacae, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A. relicta was found to have high bioactive content and antimicrobial activity. The plant extracts are rich in constant fatty acids and similar to olive oil (palmitic-oleic-linoleic), which is well known for its health benefits in terms of major fatty acids. 

Ajuga relicta, antimicrobial, bioactive compounds, fatty acid, Relict-endemic
  • [1] Atanasov, A.G., Waltenberger, B., Pferschy-Wenzig, E.M., Linder, T., Wawrosch, C., Uhrin, P., et al. (2015). Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: a review. Biotechnol. Adv., 33(8), 1582-1614.
  • [2] Toiu, A., Mocan, A., Vlase, L., Pârvu, A.E., Vodnar, DC, Gheldiu, AM, et al. (2018). Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and in Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Traditionally Used Romanian Ajuga laxmannii (Murray) Benth.(“Nobleman’s Beard”–Barba Împăratului). Front. Pharmacol., 9,7.
  • [3] Tzima, K., Brunton, N. & Rai, D. (2018). Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Polyphenols in Lamiaceae Plants—A Review. Plants, 7(2), 25.
  • [4] Davis, P.H. (1982). Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands, Vol. 10, p. 43. University Press, Edinburgh.
  • [5] Sönmez, E. & Köse, Y.B. (2008). Morpho-anatomical investigations on Ajuga postii Briq and Ajuga relicta PH Davis. Biological Diversity and Conservation, 10(1),39-49.
  • [6] Dönmez, M., Kargıoğlu, M. & Temel, M. (2011). Stachys palustris L.’in morfolojik, anatomik ve ekolojik özellikleri. AKÜ Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 11, 1-9.
  • [7] El Hilaly, J., Israili, Z.H. & Lyoussi, B. (2004). Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajuga iva in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol., 91(1), 43-50.
  • [8] Baytop, T. (1999). Therapy with medicinal plants in Turkey (past and present). Publication of the Istanbul University. p. 312.
  • [9] Doygun, H., Kısakürek, S., Erdoğan, N. & Hatipoğlu, I.H. Kahramanmaraş–Ahir Dağı Bitki Örtüsü Değişiminin Uzaktan Algılama Yöntemi ile İncelenmesi, II. Ulusal Akdeniz Orman ve Çevre Sempozyumu, Isparta, Turkey, 22-24 October, 2014.
  • [10] Varol, O., İlçim, A. & Tatli, A. (1998). New observation on two poorly known Turkish species. Thaiszia Kosice., 8, 53-56.
  • [11] Kokdil, G., Topc̡u, G., Gorenc, A.C. & Voelterd, W. (2002). Steroids and terpenoids from Ajuga relicta. Z. Naturforsch. B., 57(8), 957-960.
  • [12] Sönmez, E. & Köse, Y.B. (2017). The Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Endemic Species Ajuga postii Briq. and Ajuga relicta PH Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. Indian J. Pharm. Educ., 51(4), 700-705.
  • [13] Albayrak, S., Aksoy, A., Sagdic, O. & Budak, U. (2010). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Helichrysum species collected from eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Turk. J. Biol., 34(4), 463-473.
  • [14] UNIEN 14775, (2010). Solid biofuels, determining the ash content.
  • [15] AOAC, (1990). Official method of analysis. Association of official analytical chemists. 15th.edition, pp.66-88
  • [16] Blainski, A., Lopes, G.C. & De Mello, J.C.P. (2013) Application and analysis of the Folin Ciocalteu method for the determination of the total phenolic content from Limonium brasiliense L. Molecules, 18(6), 6852-6865.
  • [17] Chang, C.C., Yang, M.H., Wen, H.M. & Chern, J.C. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J. Food Drug Anal., 10(3), 178-182.
  • [18] Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. & Berset, C.L.W.T. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Sci Technol., 28(1), 25-30.
  • [19] Benzie, I.F. & Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem., 239(1), 70-76.
  • [20] Collins, C.H., Lyne, P.M. & Grange, J.M. (1989). Collins and Lyne’s Microbiological Methods, Sixth Edition, Butterworths Co. Ltd. London.
  • [21] Siciliano, C., Belsito, E., De Marco, R., Di Gioia, M.L., Leggio, A. & Liguori, A. (2013). Quantitative determination of fatty acid chain composition in pork meat products by high resolution 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Food Chem., 136(2), 546-554.
  • [22] Van Immerseel, F., Boyen, F., Gantois, I., Timbermont, L., Bohez, L., Pasmans, F., et al. (2005). Supplementation of coated butyric acid in the feed reduces colonization and shedding of Salmonella in poultry. Poultry Sci., 84(12), 1851-1856.
  • [23] Mohanty, B.P., Bhattacharjee, S., Paria, P., Mahanty, A. & Sharma, A.P. (2013). Lipid biomarkers of lens aging. Appl. Biochem. Biotech., 169(1), 192-200.
  • [24] Gunstone, F.D., Harwood, J.L. & Dijkstra, A.J. (2007). "The Lipid Handbook with Cd-Rom. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, ISBN 0849396883 | ISBN 978-0849396885.
  • [25] De Souza, J., Preseault, C.L. & Lock, A.L. (2018). Altering the ratio of dietary palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in diets with or without whole cottonseed affects nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production responses of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 101(1), 172-185.
  • [26] Sarikurkcu, C., Kirkan, B., Ozer, M.S., Ceylan, O., Atilgan, N., Cengiz, M. & Tepe, B. (2018). Chemical characterization and biological activity of Onosma gigantea extracts. Ind. Crops Prod., 115, 323-329.
  • [27] Makni, M., Haddar, A., Kriaa, W. & Zeghal, N. (2013). Antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of Ajuga iva leaf extracts. Int. J. Food Prop., 16(4), 756-765.
  • [28] Toiu, A., Vlase, L., Gheldiu, A.M., Vodnar, D. & Oniga, I. (2017). Evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of bioactive compounds from Ajuga reptans extracts. Farmacia, 65, 351-355.
  • [29] Movahhedin, N., Zengin, G., Bahadori, M.B., Sarikurkcu, C., Bahadori, S. & Dinparast, L. (2016). Ajuga chamaecistus subsp. scoparia (Boiss.) Rech. f.: A new source of phytochemicals for antidiabetic, skin-care, and neuroprotective uses. Ind. Crops Prod., 94, 89-96.
  • [30] Jakovljević, D.Z., Vasić, S.M., Stanković, M.S., Čomić, L.R. & Topuzović, M.D. (2015). Secondary metabolite content and in vitro biological effects of Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreb. subsp. chamaepitys. Arc. Biol. Sci., 67(4), 1195-1202.
  • [31] Kocak, M.S., Uren, M.C., Calapoglu, M., Tepe, A.S., Mocan, A., Rengasamy, K.R.R. & Sarikurkcu, C. (2017). Phenolic profile, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Stachys annua subsp. annua var. annua. S. Afr. J. Bot., 113, 128-132.
  • [32] Shahidi, F. & Ambigaipalan, P. (2015). Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: antioxidant activity and health effects - a review. J. Funct. Foods., 18, 820-897.
Primary Language en
Subjects Biology
Published Date September
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-7729-5271
Author: Nazan Çömlekcioğlu (Primary Author)
Institution: Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-2831-8910
Author: Yusuf Ziya Kocabaş
Institution: Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-4936-9872
Author: Ashabil Aygan
Institution: Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : October 15, 2019

Bibtex @research article { ijsm507568, journal = {International Journal of Secondary Metabolite}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-6905}, address = {Prof. Dr. İzzet KARA}, publisher = {İzzet KARA}, year = {2019}, volume = {6}, pages = {223 - 232}, doi = {10.21448/ijsm.507568}, title = {Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Çömlekcioğlu, Nazan and Kocabaş, Yusuf Ziya and Aygan, Ashabil} }
APA Çömlekcioğlu, N , Kocabaş, Y , Aygan, A . (2019). Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite , 6 (3) , 223-232 . DOI: 10.21448/ijsm.507568
MLA Çömlekcioğlu, N , Kocabaş, Y , Aygan, A . "Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey". International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 6 (2019 ): 223-232 <http://ijsm.ijate.net/en/issue/47863/507568>
Chicago Çömlekcioğlu, N , Kocabaş, Y , Aygan, A . "Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey". International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 6 (2019 ): 223-232
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey AU - Nazan Çömlekcioğlu , Yusuf Ziya Kocabaş , Ashabil Aygan Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.21448/ijsm.507568 DO - 10.21448/ijsm.507568 T2 - International Journal of Secondary Metabolite JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 223 EP - 232 VL - 6 IS - 3 SN - -2148-6905 M3 - doi: 10.21448/ijsm.507568 UR - https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.507568 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Secondary Metabolite Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey %A Nazan Çömlekcioğlu , Yusuf Ziya Kocabaş , Ashabil Aygan %T Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey %D 2019 %J International Journal of Secondary Metabolite %P -2148-6905 %V 6 %N 3 %R doi: 10.21448/ijsm.507568 %U 10.21448/ijsm.507568
ISNAD Çömlekcioğlu, Nazan , Kocabaş, Yusuf Ziya , Aygan, Ashabil . "Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey". International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 6 / 3 (October 2019): 223-232 . https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.507568
AMA Çömlekcioğlu N , Kocabaş Y , Aygan A . Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. IJSM. 2019; 6(3): 223-232.
Vancouver Çömlekcioğlu N , Kocabaş Y , Aygan A . Investigation of Bioactive Compounds on Relict Endemic Ajuga relicta P. H. Davis (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite. 2019; 6(3): 232-223.